Friday, April 08, 2005

Circuit Slams the Habeas Door: Booker Not Applicable to Cases that Became Final before January 12, 2005

Guzman v. United States, Docket No. 03-2446-pr (2d Cir. April 8, 2005) (Jacobs, Sotomayor, Hall) (Op. by Jacobs): Disappointing though hardly surprising, the Circuit ruled today that Booker does not apply to any cases that became final before January 12, 2005, the day Booker was decided. For those who prefer the jargon, the Court concluded that the rule established in Booker -- described simply as calling for an advisory Guidelines system rather than a binding one (following the Seventh Circuit's similarly slanted characterization in McReynolds) -- is (1) new (i.e., was not "dictated by" either Apprendi or Blakely); (2) procedural (rather than substantive); and (3) not within the "watershed" exception to Teague's bar against retroactive application of a new procedural rule to cases that became final before the rule was announced. Little new ground is trod by the opinion; it largely relies on earlier decisions reaching the same result.

Guzman is a particularly loud slam of the habeas door. A good argument could be made, for instance, that it was Blakely that announced the new rule (which Booker simply applies to the Guidelines), and thus that anyone whose case became final after June 24, 2004, could make a Blakely argument in a habeas petition. The universe of such defendants is, granted, small. Under Guzman, however, it becomes practically nonexistent: The only defendants who can benefit from Booker are those whose cases became final after January 12, 2005, and there are likely few among this crowd who suffer a Booker error.

35 Comments:

Anonymous Anonymous said...

14 February 2005

Clerk
United States Court of Appeals
Judicial Council of the Second Circuit
Thurgood Marshall US Courthouse
40 Foley Square
New York, New York 10007

RE: Resubmission of Complaint of Misconduct
Judicial Council of the Second Circuit
Case: Hall v. The New York Presbyterian Hospital, et al
USSD 00 CIV.7858

Dear Clerk:

As a practicing physician, born and trained in the United States of America, and board certified by the American Board of Family Medicine, I am held accountable for my professional actions. As a representative of my chosen profession, I am not only responsible to the patients I treat, but I am expected to adhere to an ideal, one that is called the Hippocratic Oath to ensure my patients receive the best care I possibly can deliver. It is understood that the same ethical and expert standards that apply to the medical profession also apply to the legal profession as well. Therefore, it is only natural that the following complaint be viewed only from the perspective of governance of the federal judiciary and management of federal law.

It is my firm belief that the Honorable Judge George Daniels, civil servant of the United States, agent of the United States federal judiciary, and lifetime member of the United States Southern District Court has violated his professional duties and must be held accountable to the American public. It is the belief of many that he has acted inappropriately and incompetently while presiding over Hall v. The New York Presbyterian Hospital, et al as he has treated these claims with extreme carelessness and negligence amounting to “judicial malpractice”.

It is inconceivable that a federal judge can ignore the official overtures of representing counsel. This has occurred in my case. It is morally unjust to require the filing of a lawsuit to force a ruling by a judge. This has occurred in my case. As well, one cannot comprehend how the federal court system can allow a member the federal judiciary to professionally lapse and allow an American citizen to be placed in an unacceptable and indeterminate state. This has occurred in my case. Moreover, it is unconscionable that this agent of the American government has not been held accountable for his actions. Honorable Judge George Daniels’ behavior is not only unacceptable, but also reprehensible. It must be documented that my civil rights as an American citizen were carelessly abandoned not only by my previous employer, but also by the very federal legal system designed to fairly resolve such disputes. Clearly, my constitutional entitlement to a fair judicial examination was abandoned. This District Court and Honorable Judge George Daniels’ actions have cast a great shadow on the American legal system and triggered a great number of personal, psychological and financial traumas. The Judicial Council of the Second Circuit must address these issues.

Please allow me to indulge the Judicial Council of the Second Circuit for a moment and provide some background for my complaint.

During the summer of 1997, while serving as chief ophthalmic resident and a graduate medical education member at The New York Presbyterian Hospital (“Hospital”), Petitioner witnessed several acts of racial prejudice and medical misconduct committed by senior medical staff against black Americans.

Within days, after verbally informing Petitioner’s chief-of-service, Dr. D. Jackson Coleman, MD, and program director, Kip Dolphin, MD, that an outer-borough black child did not receive timely and compassionate treatment from hospital surgeons for a traumatic penetrating eye injury, Petitioner was presented a fait accompli and asked to resign or face termination. Petitioner had previous been warned that previous comments regarding racial discrimination and medical negligence were not acceptable, and there was displeasure within the hospital staff regarding a written memo, in which Petitioner detailed why black patients did not receive adequate medical care at the hands of white hospital medical staff.

1) On October 17, 1997, unwilling to resign, Petitioner was summarily terminated from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (“ACGME”) approved ophthalmology residency position.

2) During April 1998 Petitioner brought forward a breach of contract complaint with the New York State Supreme Court based on a contractual obligation the Hospital had failed to obey by disregarding important employment bylaws while terminating Petitioner’s employment and disregarding a contractual obligation to provide adequate staffing and medical training based on ACGME approved guidelines.

3) On June 21, 1999, Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam of the New York State Supreme Court dismissed the claims based a failure to go before the New York State Public Health Council (“PHC”). A state review board comprised of twelve (12) lay and professional New York State residents enacted by New York Public Health Law 2801-b. (NY Sup. Ct. docket no. 6020395/98)

4) After discussions with numerous attorneys, Petitioner was advised that as a member of the Hospital’s “graduate medical education”, or effectively a “medical student”, Petitioner would receive no resolution, as the PHC was purely designed to hear disputes between “credentialed hospital staff members” and hospital administration. Furthermore, the PHC was unable to offer any administrative remedy.

4) On October 14, 1999 Petitioner submitted an Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act claim ("EMTALA"), regarding two points, a) maintenance of physician-on-call lists and information on physicians who refuse or fail to appear to provide timely stabilizing treatment and b) protection for "whistle-blowers" who report a violation of the regulations, as well as a 42 U.S.C. § 1981 claim.

5) After initial arguments, a full disclosure revealed that District Court Judge Jed Rakoff had a conflict of interest with the case, as this was officially entered as part of the court record. At the time, the judge was affiliated with Cornell University; Petitioner’s attorney, Ambrose Wotorson, requested that he recuse himself and appoint a new judge, the judge refused.

6) On February 24, 2000, the District Court dismissed, without prejudice, the EMTALA claim for failure to proceed before the PHC. A copy of the opinion is attached as Exhibit A.

7) a) In July 2000, Petitioner provided a written complaint to the PHC and the Hospital provided a response. A copy of the complaint is attached as Exhibit B.
b) Additionally, in July 2000, Petitioner also communicated the same claim to the New York office of the Equal Employment and Opportunity Commission (“EEOC”) and the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of for Civil Rights. A copy of the letters is attached as Exhibit C.

8) On September 22, 2000, Petitioner was provided a full crediting and affirmation of civil rights violations claims by the PHC. A copy of the opinion is attached as Exhibit D.

9) On October 16, 2000, Petitioner attorney filed a suit against defendants alleging violations of 42 U. S. C. § 1981 and various state and local laws. Abruptly, the District Court Judge Jed Rakoff inexplicably recused himself from the case and appointed District Court Judge George Daniels.

10) Between November and December 2000, the Hospital provided false and malicious information regarding medical qualifications and skills to a prospective employer, in total contradiction to the findings of the PHC.

11) On December 13, 2000, the Hospital filed a 12(b)(6) Motion seeking to dismiss the complaint for failure to plead a prima facie case of discrimination and retaliation.

12) On April 6, 2001 Petitioner submitted a formal request to amend the complaint after receipt of a right-to-sue letter from EEOC. In January 2001 the EEOC provided Petitioner with a right-to-sue letter under Title VII civil rights law. A copy of the letter is attached as Exhibit E.

13) On July 4, 2001 Petitioner submitted a formal complaint of misconduct to the Judicial Council of the Second Circuit regarding the aberrant actions of Judge Jed Rakoff. (Docket no. 01-8568)

14) On November 18, 2003, a writ of mandamus was served by Petitioner’s attorney to the Second Circuit Appeals Court causing the District Court, by judgment dated December 5, 2003, to dismiss Petitioner’s claim under 42 U. S. C. § 1981 for failure to state a claim.

15) On July 13, 2004, Petitioner’s attorney filed a timely notice of appeal contesting the validity of the district court’s findings. A copy of the appeal is attached as Exhibit F.

16) On November 23, 2004, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit entered an order affirming the district court decision. A copy of the opinion is attached as Exhibit G.

17) On December 13, 2004, Petitioner submitted a formal complaint of misconduct to the Judicial Council of the Second Circuit regarding the actions of Judge George Daniels. Please refer to the New York Times article “Judges Decisions Draw Notice, For Being Conspicuously Late”, Dec 6, 2004. A copy of the article is attached as Exhibit H.

It is crystal clear, after mandates from New York State Supreme Court and the United States Southern District Court to seek review by the New York State Public Health Council; my complaints were thoroughly investigated in July 2000. Consequently, my allegations were fully credited and during September 2000 the council established that the New York Presbyterian Hospital and Drs. Dolphin and Coleman on two points:

(1) "Committed an improper practice by terminating Dr. Hall's clinical privileges" and (2) "the council determined the Hospital's actions was not based on principles of patient care, patient welfare, practitioner character or competence, and/or the objectives of the institution." (PHC letter dated September 22, 2000)

After receiving this patent victory against the Hospital, the case was reintroduced into the federal court system, again under the auspices of Judge Jed Rakoff. Abruptly, Judge Rakoff then recused himself without explanation after my attorney again raised the issue of a conflict of interest between his senior position with Cornell School of Law and my previous employer, Cornell Medical University, who was named a defendant in my case. Judge Rakoff unprecedented and aberrant behavior was raised with complaint of misconduct on July 4, 2001 with the Judicial Council of the Second Circuit (Docket No. 01-8568).

Shortly thereafter, Judge George Daniels was appointed to my case. After satisfying Judge Jed Rakoff’s request to seek review before the New York State Public Health Council, and receiving a Title VII right-to-sue letter from the Equal Employment and Opportunity Commission, my case was placed in a state of limbo. After almost three years of inaction and stating at oral argument that he would resolve a 12(b)(6) Motion “quickly” the case continue to face total inaction. In fact, my attorney was hamstrung by the Judge Daniels and forced to write “pleas” for discussion with Judge George Daniels and place phone calls that were causally dismissed, ignored and never returned. To our dismay, the District Court eventually required a writ of mandamus to finally issue any statement at all. It is important to note after the writ was filed, within a period of two weeks, Judge Daniels threw out my long-standing claims after years of delay, inaction and abandonment. The case was never allowed to proceed to discovery.

It is obvious that my civil rights claims contained within, Hall v. The New York Presbyterian Hospital, et al., (Southern District Court Index No. 00 CIV. 7858), were treated by the District Court with an absence of ordinary care.

I base this information on several facts and have enclosed documents to support my allegations.


1) Approximately one year ago, the Southern District Court (Honorable Judge George Daniels) granted defendants' motion to dismiss the case against The New York Presbyterian Hospital and Drs. Coleman and Dolphin. In an order dated December 5, 2003, the District Court held that my pleadings were legally deficient, "nowhere in his complaint…does Dr. Hall claim that he…specifically complained of disparate treatment provided to blacks as compared to white, or that the issue of race was ever discussed in connection with is patient’s care or his complaints about their treatment.” Moreover, the District Court held that the complaint made “no factual allegations that the white senior physicians were actually made aware that the patient in question was black, that senior physicians who failed to assist Dr. Hall were aware that the patient in question was black, that a departure from the standard of care occurred because the patient was black.” This issue is critical as we had submitted and affidavit attesting to this fact, yet Judge Daniels disallowed this evidence form becoming part of the legal record.

It is my claim that the District Court failed to appreciate a significant lower court ruling, primarily the New York State Public Health Council crediting my complaint against the New York Presbyterian Hospital in September 2000. It is my belief that this vital information was improperly disregarded by the District Court thwarting my claims. The substance of the complaint, in which I brought against the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical University, regarded the hospital terminating my professional privileges under the 2801-b provision of New York State Public Health Law. It is the New York State Public Health Council’s opinion the hospital, ophthalmology department chairman and program director acted improperly. Specifically stated in my complaint I referenced an African-American immigrant who was not treated timely or compassionately by white staff members after a severe penetrating eye injury, “it is my belief that the hospital internationally disregarded the patient (sic) civil rights and federal rights for treatment in a level one trauma center due to his ethnicity and immigration status.” Additionally, I went on to describe that an African-American child with a severe penetrating eye injury was not seen or examined at all, by any member of registered hospital attending staff after five separate white surgeons were notified personally by me while on call as chief resident. All white surgeons asked pointed questions about the child’s ethnicity and when identified as black were adverse to attend to his emergent medical care, “the incident that transpired in August involving a African-American child transferred explicitly to the hospital from another (local) hospital was entirely racially motivated and reflects an arrogance and superiority I have never witnessed before.” (See the New York State Public Health Council complaint)

Moreover, stated bolding in my the New York State Public Health Council complaint and made exhibit one of my federal complaint, I proclaim “the hospital parties were also well aware of several complaints….in writing and verbally…to hospital superiors…complaints were based on several episodes of medical negligence and racial discrimination.” (See the New York State Public Health Council complaint). Contrary to the defendant’s claims, I immediately made Drs. Coleman and Dolphin aware of my concerns of disparate medical care against black patients by white hospital staff. This is unequivocally supported by the New York State Public Health Council investigation and extensive review of all the evidence. As well, the crediting of the allegations as fact completely contradict the District Court’s affirming the defendants’ outlandish assertions that the claims are “after-the-fact” and are based on “a second bite at the apple” legal theory.


2) Additionally, the District Court denied my motion to amend my complaint by implying it held no new relevant information. In the alternative, I argued that the District Court should have granted me this relevant affidavit, amending my complaint, so that I could have pleased the court with specified details that the court requested, including the substance of the New York State Public Health Council ruling, [which incidentally was already cited in the pending federal complaint] and demanded highly germane by the previous District Court Judge Jed Rakoff in accordance to New York State Health Law. (Southern District Court Index No.99 CIV. 10554)


In that regard, it is unclear from the District Court’s dismissal what additional information would please the court, as it would seem that the court has on one hand demanded [per District Court Judge Jed Rakoff] the New York State Public Health Council judgement, deemed vital to pursue federal action, and on the other, ignored the New York State Public Health Council findings altogether. Based on my first federal ruling, (Southern District Court Index No. 99 CIV. 10554), a nexus was formed and clearly stated my federal claims are not separate and distinct from the New York State Public Health Council’s expert judgement and the affirmation of these allegations, as they are intertwined, provide undeniable, definitive and incorruptible support to my sentinel allegations against the defendants.

Once again, incredulously, at oral argument counsel represented that I had furnished all links to disparate care and the mistreatment of black patient by defendants through my detailed and fully accepted New York State Public Health Council review finalized in September 2000. I had met the legal threshold of both 42 U.S.C. § 1981 and Title VII, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e by advocating for a racial minority and then later being discriminated against by my employer for doing so through termination and defamation. Emphatically, this is based on the verbal and written statements attesting to the surgical and medical mistreatment and racial discrimination by the defendants as it related to black patients I was caring for as a federal funded proxy of the defendants.

Clearly, I witnessed and purported black patients with critical eye injuries did indeed suffer and receive disparate care by agents of The New York Presbyterian Hospital. I vociferously expressed these concerns through an internal memo providing them to my immediate superiors and was later fired for doing so. As my claims were presented before the court, they have been boxed neatly by the New York State Public Health Council and avoid any notion of presumption or confusion.

To reiterate, as I have read my claims presented by my attorney, it is ludicrous to determine that I have failed to allege “that he was fired by the hospital because he was advocating the 1981 rights of member of a racial minority,” as per Honorable Judge George Daniels. Plainly stated, the District Court argued this point was never alleged or supported in my federal claim. This is absolutely wrong, as it formed the basis of my New York Hospital Public Health Council complaint and this action was entered into my federal complaint in October 2000 as well as a Title VII right-to-sue letter from the Equal Employment and Opportunity Commission a letter provided to the court on April 6, 2001. What exactly does a right to sue letter imply if the District Court can ignore it and is not held accountable to the federal agency that provided it? Again, it is impossible to understand why this claim was not acknowledged or understood, as it was highlighted and on the first page of my federal complaint.


3) District Court Judge George Daniels, as a lifetime member of the federal judiciary and representative of the United States of America legal system, was issued a Writ of Mandamus regarding a unreasonable time delay regarding a 12(b)(6) Motion sought by the defendants. The writ was issued because of a perceived lack of professionalism and ethics, as he was contacted by my attorney via phone and writing multiple times without response over a period of years and failing to render a decision over two and half years. Realizing that the case was in a state of limbo, on June 2, 2003 we wrote the Chief Judge of the Southern District of New York requesting that the case be transferred to another District Court Judge in light of the District Court’s failure to render a decision on a 12(b)(6) Motion for almost three years. This letter was never answered. Only after being issued a Writ of Mandamus on November 18, 2003, the District Court ruled on December 5th, 2003, fifteen days after receiving the summons. It appears that after a period of many years, the Honorable Judge George Daniels was exceptionally willing to work toward resolving the case and dismissing it without delay. The space of time required for him to make this profoundly swift decision raises the question of his motives and raises the question that he breached his professional and ethical judicial duties.


Furthermore, I allege the District Court acted unjustly and prejudicially by the sweeping dismissal of claims, 42 U.S.C. § 1981 and Title VII, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e, [provided by a right-to-sue letter from the New York office of the Equal Employment and Opportunity Commission in January 2001] after the said court was again forced by legal threat to make a decision based on a higher court’s writ of mandamus submitted by my attorney Ambrose Wotorson. Soon after, the District Court ruled with unceremonious alacrity to discharge the claims while boldly demonstrating, through a short opinion, it had no reasonable comprehension of the case and supporting documents. The District Court failed to address serious claims with any modicum of logically bearing and has made irrational statements that indicate it clearly had no understanding of the claims and set out to nullify said claims and thereby actively obstructed my case and hindering due process.

The District Court affirmed the dismissal of all defendants and found with prejudice against Dr. Hall.


4) Recently, the Southern District Federal Court of Manhattan, New York, and its proxy, the Honorable Judge George Daniels has recently come under scrutiny in the press. It is obvious that the United States Southern District Court’s integrity is currently in peril and based on a front page article from The New York Times, dated December 6, 2004, the District Court’s Judge George Daniels has had a series of lapses in jurisprudence. Unparalleled in the history of the United States Southern District, this chaotic situation creates numerous fears, invokes unprecedented suspicions and opprobrium. Most concerning, Judge Daniels’ behavior gives the appearance and impression that the validity of his rulings are potentially flawed. According to The New York Times, the District Court’s Chief Judge, Michael B. Mukasey, Judge George Daniels’ behavior is not isolated and is was recognized as improper and ongoing, “Judge Michael B. Mukasey, chief judge of the Federal District Court, who has received repeated complaints about the delays, said that he thought Judge Daniels had been tackling his backlog, and that the year-old statistics did not offer the clearest picture. ‘Judge Daniels and I have spoken about this," he said, …"As an institutional matter," Judge Mukasey added, "obviously inordinate delay is always a concern."

There are serious questions raised by these statements. Are we to assume that any clearer picture exists? What does ‘institutional matter’ legally define; does it apply only to the bench or also the public? Who exactly is in charge? Why is behavior condoned and this allowed to happen? Can a judge be above the law?

In conclusion, I respectfully ask the Judicial Council of the Second Circuit to initiate and complete a professional review of the Honorable Judge George B. Daniels’ court procedures and a full and unfettered evaluation of his ruling regarding Hall v. The New York Presbyterian Hospital, et al. As you may be aware, I have recently submitted a formal complaint of misconduct against the Honorable Judge George B. Daniels to the Clerk of Court of the Second Circuit Appeals Court, but was required to formally resubmit the matter.

These statements are true under penalty of perjury.



Yours faithfully,





Michael James Hall, MD, MSc

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November 22, 2005 at 3:15 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Please read. NY Times Dec 6 2004

Sen. Leahy has supported this nomination.



Judge's Decisions Are Conspicuously Late
By BENJAMIN WEISER

Published: December 6, 2004


They are kept in federal courthouses across the United States, although, understandably, they are not prominently displayed: lists of cases that have dragged on for months or even years, often because a judge has failed to make a key ruling.

But there is one unchallenged king of delayed decisions: Judge George B. Daniels of Federal District Court in Manhattan, who, the latest statistics show, had 289 motions in civil cases pending for more than six months, by far the highest total of any federal judge in the nation.


For some plaintiffs, the waits have seemed like forever.

There was the woman in Queens who had to fend off creditors while she waited more than three years for the judge to decide that she was entitled to her late ex-husband's pension benefits. And there was the prisoner with H.I.V. who filed a petition challenging his state court conviction. By the time Judge Daniels got around to issuing an order - three years later - the prisoner had died.

Of course, court delays are an age-old problem. The agency that tabulates delayed civil cases, the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, in Washington, circulates the lists to federal judges twice a year, offering a not-so-subtle reminder of cases that might be falling through the cracks. But of about 1,500 active and senior Federal District Court judges and magistrates in the United States, none come close to Judge Daniels's record of motions that have been awaiting action for more than six months, according to the fall 2003 list, the most recent available.

The judge's total is more than 100 ahead of the second-ranked judge, who is from South Carolina and has 171. On the Manhattan federal bench, Judge Daniels has more than three times the number of these motions than the next judge, who has 91.

Federal judges, to be sure, often need time to decide difficult legal questions. But some of Judge Daniels's critics suggest that his approach is the judicial equivalent of a lawyer neglecting a client's case. Delays can be frustrating and disillusioning; they make judges seem imperious to litigants, who often put their lives on hold as they await a decision. Regina Adams, the Queens woman in the pension case, said, "It was really hard, with all the bill collectors down my neck."

Court records and interviews show that in at least eight cases, including Mrs. Adams's, people were so frustrated by Judge Daniels's slow pace that they went over his head. They filed petitions with the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit asking that it order Judge Daniels to rule or perhaps transfer their cases to another judge.

Typically, shortly after the petitions were filed in the higher court, Judge Daniels did rule.

Judge Daniels, who joined the bench in April 2000, did not respond to repeated requests for comment. His list of pending motions, sometimes several in a case, cites reasons for some delays, like "complexity of case," "heavy criminal and civil caseload" and "voluminous brief/transcripts to be read." But in other cases, including several that led to petitions to the Court of Appeals, the list says, "no comment on status."

Judge Michael B. Mukasey, chief judge of the Federal District Court, who has received repeated complaints about the delays, said that he thought Judge Daniels had been tackling his backlog, and that the year-old statistics did not offer the clearest picture.

"Judge Daniels and I have spoken about this," he said, "and I have every reason to believe that to the extent that it's a problem, which is less than the raw numbers appear to indicate, it's being addressed by him and his staff."

"As an institutional matter," Judge Mukasey added, "obviously inordinate delay is always a concern."

Federal courts have historically been regarded as far more efficient than state systems, but there is apparently little that can be done when a federal judge, who enjoys lifetime tenure, moves too slowly on a civil motion. In criminal cases, in which deadlines are more enforceable, delays do not appear to have been a problem in Judge Daniels's cases.

But a review of the civil cases in which the appeals court was asked to intervene with Judge Daniels shows what can happen when the wheels of justice effectively grind to a halt.

A Woman's Quest

For Regina Adams, the issue seemed clear. In 1997, after her former husband, Stanley, a bus driver, died, she began receiving a survivor's pension benefit of $1,178 a month.

But the next year, the checks stopped. Mrs. Adams, then in her late 60's, was confused. Although she and Mr. Adams had been divorced, he had made her the beneficiary of his pension plan.

Then, she says, she discovered that her husband's new wife, to whom he had been married for less than a year, had also made a claim for his benefits.

In 1999, the pension fund filed a federal lawsuit, asking the court to decide which woman should receive Mr. Adams's benefits. In April 2000, the suit was assigned to Judge Daniels.

By August 2000, the parties had filed their legal papers and were awaiting a decision. But as the months passed, no ruling was issued.

Mrs. Adams, a composer of songs like "Everybody's Somebody's Fool" (recorded by Lionel Hampton), said her bills mounted and she began to have financial troubles.

In January 2002, after 17 months, her lawyer, Edgar Pauk, wrote to Judge Daniels, asking that he make the case a priority.

"While I understand that the court has innumerable claims on its time, my client is over 70 years old," Mr. Pauk wrote. He received no response to that letter.

What then followed was a series of calls and letters, which were met with silence or with assurances from the judge's aides that action was imminent, as Mr. Pauk explained in a later submission to the appeals court.

The judge was working on a decision "as we speak," Mr. Pauk said one assistant told him. "On top of the list," he said he was told in a later call. The case was second in line, he was told in yet another call, in June 2003. But no ruling came.

By summer, Mrs. Adams said, collection agencies were becoming more threatening. "She just couldn't take it," said Christopher Dagg, a lawyer with Legal Services for the Elderly, which helped her send letters to creditors, explaining her predicament. Her daughter lent her money.

Mr. Pauk called Judge Daniels's chambers twice more in August and early September, but the calls were not returned, he wrote.

Finally, on Sept. 26, 2003, more than three years after the motions had been submitted, Mr. Pauk filed a request, known as a petition for writ of mandamus, with the appeals court, asking that it intervene.

Such a move is highly unusual and even potentially risky, lawyers say, as it can offend a lower-court judge who still has to decide a case.

"In her case justice delayed is truly justice denied," Mr. Pauk wrote in his submission.

Three weeks later, and before the appeals court responded, Judge Daniels filed a ruling that would allow Mrs. Adams to begin getting the pension checks again, and the case was settled, with Mrs. Adams also receiving what she was owed - about $75,000, Mr. Pauk said.

A Pattern of Delays

Mrs. Adams's experience seems typical, a review of cases shows. If there has been a common course in the cases pending before Judge Daniels, it is this: the plaintiffs and their lawyers wait one, two, or three years for a ruling, growing increasingly restless and perplexed. When they are completely exasperated, they write to the appeals court. Judge Daniels then usually acts. In some cases, the appeals court would respond by issuing a brief order that said it would not intervene immediately, but that the plaintiff could come back if the judge did not act within a specific period, like 30 days.

But court records and interviews make clear that by then, the damage was often done.

In 1999, Charisse Johnson filed a lawsuit, contending that the rights of her son Isaac, who is African-American, were violated when he was included in a research study of black and Hispanic boys that excluded whites, and was given a dose of a harmful drug.

By May 15, 2000, both Ms. Johnson and the defendants, who denied the allegations, had filed their motions. But more than three years passed without a ruling. Ms. Johnson's lawyers, K. C. Okoli and Rudy M. Brown, at last filed a petition with the appeals court. Their client was beginning to blame them for the delays, they wrote.

On Nov. 18, 2003, one day before a panel of the appeals court issued its standard brief order, Judge Daniels ruled, dismissing some counts and defendants and allowing others to remain in the case.

By the time of the ruling, Isaac was 17. The lawsuit is still pending.

His mother said the delay only added to her son's problem. "I can't give him no answer. Just saying, 'We have to wait.' " she said. "And he's asking me, 'Why are we still waiting when it's all there?' "

A plaintiff in another case, Dr. Michael Hall, said he was outraged that he had to wait more than 19 months for Judge Daniels to rule in his suit against a hospital that he claimed had fired him for complaining about its treatment of black patients. The hospital, denying wrongdoing, called the allegations baseless and sought dismissal of the suit. Dr. Hall's lawyer, Ambrose Wotorson, finally asked the court of appeals to order Judge Daniels to rule. Within weeks the judge dismissed the complaint as being legally insufficient. "It must have been sitting in the bottom of the drawer," Dr. Hall said. "I don't think he ever really read it." (The appeals court recently upheld the dismissal.)

Perhaps, some lawyers have suggested, Judge Daniels wants to resolve his cases quickly, but is like many a tortured writer who has trouble finishing a draft until an editor demands that it be turned in.

Take the case of a Manhattan couple who sued New York City, claiming that child welfare workers had illegally removed their children, based on spurious abuse allegations. The city denied wrongdoing, and asked the judge to dismiss the case.

"I'll give you a decision as quickly as I can," Judge Daniels said after oral arguments in April 2001.

But more than three years passed without a ruling, despite numerous calls to chambers by the family's lawyers.

Finally, in June 2004, one lawyer, Carolyn A. Kubitschek, wrote to Judge Daniels, and even attached a copy of the spring 2003 list of delayed cases locally, which included a total of 255 pending motions for the judge at the time.

"My clients are entitled to justice on their case," she wrote.

In July, she asked the appeals court to intervene, saying the judge's failure to render a decision "is intolerable."

About a week later, Judge Daniels ruled, allowing almost all of the family's claims to go forward. Ms. Kubitschek, praising the ruling itself, speculated that Judge Daniels was perhaps "a kind of perfectionist who, after he's made a decision, wants to make it perfect, and even though it's very good, he doesn't issue it because he's trying to polish it up."

For Some, Late Is Never

For one plaintiff, Jose Soto, the delay before Judge Daniels was so long that he never got to learn the result of his case.

Mr. Soto, acting without a lawyer, filed a petition in August 2000 with the federal court, seeking to challenge his state conviction and sentence in a burglary case. He cited ineffectiveness of counsel and other grounds.

Mr. Soto, who was about 40 and had a long criminal record, documents show, also wrote in the petition that he was H.I.V.-positive. The case was assigned to Judge Daniels in February 2001, the docket shows.

With no ruling, Mr. Soto wrote to the Court of Appeals in September, seeking help. In a short order two months later, the appeals court reassured him that "we have no reason to doubt" Judge Daniels will rule "with reasonable promptness."

But 19 months passed. Then, in June 2003, Judge Daniels referred the case to a magistrate judge for review, the docket shows. Within days, the magistrate judge, James C. Francis IV, issued a report. He recommended that Mr. Soto's petition be dismissed as moot.

Mr. Soto, he wrote, had died one month earlier.

Last April, Judge Daniels issued a short order saying he was adopting the magistrate's report, and dismissed the case.

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