Thursday, August 02, 2007

DEFENDANT, WHO FLED FROM ILLEGAL TRAFFIC STOP, WAS NOT “SEIZED”

United States v. Baldwin, No. 06-4265-cr (2d Cir. July 23, 2007) (Jacobs, Wesley, Gibson, CJJ).

Police officers, acting on an anonymous tip, pulled over a car that the defendant was driving. He refused to comply with any of their orders and, when one officer approached the passenger’s side, he sped off. After a chase, the car slammed into an embankment and the defendant was arrested. In the car, the officers found firearms and ammunition along with crack and drug paraphernalia.

Defendant moved to suppress the evidence on the ground that the initial order to stop the car was illegal. The district court denied the motion, holding that the defendant was not seized because he did not submit to the officers’ authority.

On appeal, the court agreed: “We hold that, to comply with an order to stop - and thus to become seized - a suspect must do more than halt temporarily; he must submit to police authority, for there is no seizure without actual submission.” The court adopted a totality of the circumstances test to determine whether there has been a submission to authority, focusing on “the nature of the interaction, and not its length.”

The court went on to conclude that the evidence was lawfully obtained because it was incident to the defendant’s arrest, and the arrest, by the time it happened, was supported by probable cause. It also rejected the defendant’s claim that, since the order to stop was not supported by reasonable suspicion, everything that followed was tainted. A defendant can be seized based on events that occur after the issuance of an unreasonable order to stop.

25 Comments:

Anonymous Winstrol said...

There are so many such cases!

July 29, 2010 at 7:51 AM  
Blogger doron said...

here you can find Viagra the best solution for ED treatment ,
Viagra every 6 hours every day. Buy Viagra

yes or no Viagra

There are many online pharmacies were you can find

Viagra
online and prices will be much cheaper
, Generic Viagra more over you can always Viagra On the street, Viagrafor money to
Buy Viagra Online is the best.viagra no prescription

In adition you can use Cheap Viagra you can buy Cheap Viagra online yes now you can buy Cheap Viagraor you can look forCialis for the same and some times Buy Cialis a longer lasting result!

Cialis in fact is similar to viagra in it’s affect.
Cialis is one of the most effective meal
Buy Cialis Online enhancement medications online ! Buy Cialis Online with most online pharmacies. Buy Phentermine Online it is a worldwide known drug Buy Phentermine Online
can be found on the web on numerous locations.
Buy Phentermine Online

More over yes now Buy Phentermine Online is known for it’s results
Xanax Online
is an anti anxiety medication Xanax is a short-acting drug
Buy Xanax is used to treat anxiety Buy Xanax online. best online pharmacy for you.

Vicodin Online narcotic analgesic product

Buy Vicodin relieve moderate to severe pain
Viagra Alternative You can find Buy Vicodin and
Buy Valium to treat anxiety disorders. Ultram on sale Ultram best price Ultram cheap pharmacy Ambien best price Cialis online today Cialis is known for it’s results Valium online sale Valium online sale Buy Valium
today Buy Xanax Online cheap prices Buy Xanax online today.

August 2, 2010 at 10:29 AM  
Blogger doron said...

Many pepole use Ambien Online Today.
viagra no prescription the popular insomnia relief,
viagra without prescription also no you can buy Cialis without prescription
yes it is true Cialis without prescription

is now available Viagra Online
Find the most competitive online Ambien
Online Pharmacies Ambien lowest prices Viagra is a semi-synthetic opioid Buy Phentermine Online naturally occurring opiates Buy Hydrocodone can be found online Hydrocodone is very effective !

Hydrocodone is an FDA approved medication.

Oxycodone narcotic pain-reliever.

Oxycodone Online for sensation of pain.

Oxycodone should be stored between 15 to 30 C
Buy Oxycodone relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxycontin tablets is 5 to 30 mg every 4 hours. Buy Oxycontin
narcotic pain-relievers Oxycontin may lead to increased Levitra is formulated as orange Phentermine cross debossed on one side
Ambien only for you Ativan here also Oxycontin best price Adderall online sale Loeazepam for you Hydrocodone for pain Hydrocodone on sale today Buy Hydrocodone Online here. Buy Cialis online today Buy Phentermine Online big sale Buy Phentermine in UK pharmacy Buy Cialis cheapest prices Buy Valium today Hydrocodone Online pharmacy Adipex best offers Ambien online pharmacy Meridia best offer Buy Meridia trusted source Meridia online options Meridia best pharmacy Lorazepam best offer Alprazolam best choice accutane online here.

August 2, 2010 at 10:38 AM  
Blogger doron said...

In some cases Viagrais the best solution
Viagra Alternativemany people use
Buy xanax
and other try Xanax
you can Buy xanaxand also try to use
Phentermine
yes many pepole try
Buy Phentermine Online
and many others use
Propecia
another drug you is
Cialis also called a hypnotic.
Cialis affects chemicals in your brain Buy Phentermine Online unbalanced and cause sleep problems
cialis that causes
cialis dose-related depression
Alprazolam
is useful in treating anxiety
cialis and muscle spasms
cialis Brand name is
Phentermine A generic version
Percocet is a combination of
viagra is a Schedule
Buy Percocet to discuss what
Phentermine These would include
Percocet recreationally rather than
Buy Phentermine Online either an Addict
Valium yes this is the best website for
Valium here you can purchase
Valium online without prescription,
Valium from USA pharmacy
Valium for Anxity, or
Buy Phentermine Online on how best to deal
Phentermine No prescription specifically developed to allow Phentermine No prescription for office-based treatment Buy Ativan is in a group of drugs
Ativan is used to treat anxiety disorders.
Klonopin is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines
Xanax online offers
Xanax online sale
Ambien best price
Ambien best choice Ativan also here Ativan No Prescription Klonopin best price Xenical best prices Ultram online pharmacy Ambien Online best price.

August 2, 2010 at 11:01 AM  
Blogger doron said...

Clonazepam
affects chemicals Clonazepam is used to Klonopin if you Zolpidem prevents the Propecia use by men only Diazepam not be used cialis is pain reliever.
Cialis no prescription is the best.
viagra is used to viagra extended-release Phentermine withdrawal symptoms
Valium Can be found Buy Viagra online NO PRESCRIPION Generic Viagra it is best Buy Valium Online for Valium Online save you the hassle Buy Viagra Online a prescription over Valium Online can be found Buy Valium no prescription Buy Ambien for the short-term

Buy Levitra for the
Buy codeine narcotic pain-reliever .
codeine is morphine
codeine in the brain Acomplia new class Acomplia Cannabinoid-1 Phentermine Without Prescription online buy Xanax best prices Xanax worldwide delivery Xanax for the best Xanax at discount Xanax for anxity. Vicodin cheap prices Hydrocodone best solution Hydrocodone against pain Levitra online sale Tramadol online here Tramadol best prices Adipex online pharmacy Ambien right now
Ambien best prices Ambien best prices Buy Ambien Online discount pharmacy Buy Ambien save money Buy Adipex Online today Tramadol cheap online Vicodin online today Valium Online without prescription Cheap Cialis onlline today Cheap Cialis usa

August 2, 2010 at 11:07 AM  
Blogger doron said...

Adipex Phentermine Drug Information from Drugs.com. Includes side effects, interactions, indications.
Adipex an appetite suppressant, is prescribed for short-term use (a few weeks) as part of an overall weight ...
Ambien (zolpidem) is a sedative and is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia by helping you fall asleep.
Ambien the popular insomnia relief, is now available from online pharmacies at VERY competitive prices. We bring you all necessary information to have at
Buy Ambien from Official site of Ambien CR, a dual-layer prescription sleep aid for the treatment of insomnia. Click for safety and prescribing information
Ambien (Zolpidem Tartrate), drug uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, and patient labeling.
Klonopin (clonazepam) is used to control seizures in epilepsy and for the treatment of panic disorder
Oxycontin (oxycodone) is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Includes OxyContin side effects, interactions and indications
Oxycontin
Oxycontin
Oxycontin
Buy Adderall Online (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) is used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Includes Adderall side effects
buy Adderall Without Prescription
Adderall No Prescription
Adderall No Prescription
Buy Adderall Online
Buy Adderall
Buy Adderall
Buy Adderall
Adderall
Adderall
Adderall
Adderall
Buy Hydrocodone Online
Buy hydrocodone
Loeazepam
Lorazepam
Loeazepam
Clonazepam
Clonazepam
Clonazepam
Clonazepam

August 2, 2010 at 11:09 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I hunger for to congratulate Obama on his success!

November 13, 2012 at 5:39 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Discount Viagra[url=http://www.viagradiscount.us]Viagra [/url]http://www.viagradiscount.us
Hydrocodone [url=http://www.buyhydrocodone.cc]Hydrocodone [/url]http://www.buyhydrocodone.cc
Online Oxycontin[url=http://www.oxycontinonlineusa.com]Oxycontin [/url]http://www.oxycontinonlineusa.com
Vicodin Without Prescription[url=http://www.vicodin-without-prescription.org]Vicodin [/url]http://www.vicodin-without-prescription.org

November 23, 2012 at 5:06 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Viagra Online Without Prescription[url=http://www.viagraonlinewithoutprescription.us]Viagra Online Without Prescription[/url]http://www.viagraonlinewithoutprescription.us
Viagra Online without prescription[url=http://www.viagra.gd]Viagra [/url]http://www.viagra.gd
Cialis[url=http://www.cialis.gd]Cialis[/url]http://www.cialis.gd
Viagra[url=http://www.viagra-no-prescription.com]Viagra[/url]http://www.viagra-no-prescription.com
Cheap Viagra[url=http://www.viagra-cheap.us]Cheap Viagra[/url]http://www.viagra-cheap.us

December 4, 2012 at 4:41 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Qrrnnqdyf [url=http://www.oakleymaxjp.com/]オークリー サングラス[/url] Llnvmdvxh Ebzaznkme [url=http://www.oakleymaxjp.com/]オークリー アウトレット[/url] Hqtoctksg Yjlgghywz [url=http://www.oakleymaxjp.com/]オークリー ゴルフ[/url] Mtbxqdguc Ylnkrhvgr [url=http://www.oakleymaxjp.com/]オークリー メガネ[/url] Libfnjatd Bjcpwnhwu http://www.oakleymaxjp.com/ Gmnourocx

December 23, 2012 at 11:07 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


viagra, viagra,

http://candyhealth.com/story.php?title=viagra-online-without-prescription-69

viagra, viagra,

http://thesocialbettingsite.com/pligg/story.php?title=viagra-online-without-prescription-20

viagra, viagra,

http://linkingjunction.com/story.php?title=viagra-online-without-prescription-32

viagra, viagra,

http://www.dipity.com/reasondibble3/Viagra

viagra, viagra,

http://www.purevolume.com/reasonhead7/posts/3254783/Viagra+Online+Without+Prescription

January 3, 2013 at 2:46 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

|
|
|

January 7, 2013 at 1:25 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Viagra Online Without Prescription[url=http://www.viagraonlinewithoutprescription.us]Viagra Online Without Prescription[/url]http://www.viagraonlinewithoutprescription.us
Buy Cialis Online [url=http://www.buy-cialis-online.name] Buy Cialis [/url]http://www.buy-cialis-online.name
Levitra[url=http://www.levitrarxusa.com]Levitra[/url]http://www.levitrarxusa.com
Cheap Viagra[url=http://www.viagra-cheap.us] Cheap Viagra[/url]http://www.viagra-cheap.us

January 10, 2013 at 7:02 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Viagra Online Without Prescription[url=http://www.viagra-online-without-prescription.org]Viagra Online Without Prescription[/url]http://www.viagra-online-without-prescription.org
Cialis Online [url=http://www.cialis-online-without-prescription.org] cialis online[/url]http://www.cialis-online-without-prescription.org
Generic Viagra[url=http://www.viagrageneric.name]Generic Viagra[/url]http://www.viagrageneric.name
viagra[url=http://www.buyviagraonlinepills.com] viagra online [/url]http://www.buyviagraonlinepills.com

January 29, 2013 at 9:20 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Xanax[url=http://www.xanax.cx]Xanax[/url]http://www.xanax.cx
Purchase Ambien[url=http://www.purchase-ambien.com]Ambien [/url]http://www.purchase-ambien.com
buy phentermine [url=http://www.buyadipexrxpills.com] buy phentermine [/url]http://www.buyadipexrxpills.com
Adipex Online[url=http://www.adipexonlinerx.com]Adipex [/url]http://www.adipexonlinerx.com
Order Xanax [url=http://www.orderxanax.biz] Order Xanax [/url]http://www.orderxanax.biz

February 4, 2013 at 4:27 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

&&& Viagra Online Without Prescription %%% Viagra Online Without Prescription 778856 http://www.viagra-online-without-prescription.biz ((()0
Cialis &&&& Cialis %%% http://www.cialis.gd (()) Viagra **&& Viagra %%% http://www.viagra-no-prescription.com
(()) Viagra **** Viagra %%% http://www.viagra.gd
$$%% Cialis Online (()) Cialis Online +++ http://www.cialisonline-usa.com

March 13, 2013 at 10:40 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

oZzy moved away ever before, I miss his cock, that i'm always hungry for sex.
FUCK MY PUSSY!

Feel free to visit my web page - hcg injections

March 16, 2013 at 12:41 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I am not sure wherе you're getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for great information I was looking for this info for my mission.

Feel free to visit my blog 우면소식 -

March 17, 2013 at 10:31 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Viagra[url=http://www.viagra.gd]Viagra[/url]http://www.viagra.gd
Buy Klonopin[url=http://www.buy-klonopin.biz] Buy Klonopin[/url]http://www.buy-klonopin.biz

April 4, 2013 at 9:58 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Viagra[url=http://www.viagra.gd]Viagra[/url]http://www.viagra.gd
cialis[url=http://www.cialisbuy.us]Buy Cialis [/url]http://www.cialisbuy.us
viagra[url=http://www.viagrawithoutprescription.vc]Viagra Without Prescription [/url]http://www.viagrawithoutprescription.vc
Cialis[url=http://www.cialis-without-prescription.us]Cialis Without Prescription [/url]http://www.cialis-without-prescription.us

April 7, 2013 at 7:42 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Viagra[url=http://www.viagra.gd]Viagra[/url]http://www.viagra.gd
Adipex Online[url=http://www.adipexonlinepills.com] Adipex Online[/url]http://www.adipexonlinepills.com
Levitra[url=http://www.levitra.gd]Levitra[/url]http://www.levitra.gd

April 18, 2013 at 4:51 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Klonopin[url=http://www.klonopin.name]Klonopin[/url]http://www.klonopin.name
viagra[url=http://www.viagrawithoutprescription.ws] viagra[/url]http://www.viagrawithoutprescription.ws
Cialis[url=http://www.cialis.gd]Cialis[/url]http://www.cialis.gd
Viagra Online Without Prescription[url=http://www.viagraonlinewithoutprescription.us]Viagra Online Without Prescription[/url]http://www.viagraonlinewithoutprescription.us

April 19, 2013 at 12:56 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Adipex [url=http://www.buyadipexguide.com] Buy Adipex[/url]http://www.buyadipexguide.com
Viagra Online Without Prescription[url=http://www.viagra-online-without-prescription.org]Viagra Online Without Prescription[/url]http://www.viagra-online-without-prescription.org
Viagra Online Without Prescription[url=http://www.viagra-online-without-prescription.biz]Viagra Online Without Prescription[/url]http://www.viagra-online-without-prescription.biz
buy cialis online [url=http://www.cialisonline-usa.com] buy cialis online [/url]http://www.cialisonline-usa.com

April 19, 2013 at 2:49 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

<----- Opening Spinn
ValiumValiumhttp://www.valium.name
Valium Valium Onlinehttp://www.valiumonline.biz
Buy KlonopinKlonopin http://www.buyklonopinrx.com

April 25, 2013 at 11:25 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

http://www.http://childstats.gov/disclaim.asp?url=http://www.xanaxuk.co.uk&cache=yes xanax asd xanax asda
http://www.http://blsweb1.psb.bls.gov/asp/redirect.asp?target=http://www.xanaxuk.co.uk xanax asd xanax asda
http://www.http://www.foreignlaborcert.doleta.gov/leave-doleta.cfm?target=www.xanaxuk.co.uk xanax asd xanax Online asda
http://www.http://home2.nyc.gov/cgi-bin/exit.pl?url=http://www.xanaxuk.co.uk xanax asd xanax asda
http://www.http://export.gov/build/fragments/fl_eg_outsidelinks/redirect.asp?url=http://www.xanaxuk.co.uk xanax asd xanax asda
http://www.http://arc.asm.ca.gov/redirect.aspx?url=http://www.xanaxuk.co.uk xanax asd Buy xanax asda
http://www.http://prtl-drprd-web.nyc.gov/cgi-bin/exit.pl?url=http://www.xanaxuk.co.uk&time=8 xanax asd xanax Online asda
http://www.http://wsd.dli.mt.gov/exit.asp?url=http://www.xanaxuk.co.uk xanax Online asd xanax Online asda

May 14, 2013 at 3:04 AM  

Post a Comment

<< Home